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《城市交通》杂志
2007年 第6期
空间可达性研究综述
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文章编号:1672-5328(2007)06-0036-08

刘贤腾
(南京大学城市与区域规划系,南京 210093)

摘要:可达性概念在理解上的分歧产生了许多本质认识及测算方法上的混乱,为了全面、准确地理解可达性,运用文献综述的方法,全面回顾国内外学者对其本质含义及测算方法的论述。对空间可达性的认识及测算方法总体上分为三种类型:空间阻隔、机会累积和空间相互作用。基于空间阻隔的方法是从纯形态学角度来分析可达性,而基于机会累积和基于空间相互作用的方法还考察土地使用和发展机会对可达性的影响。基于机会累积的测算方法强调某点在等时线范围内所能接触到的机会累积量,而基于空间相互作用的测算方法侧重于出发点与目的点间的相互作用强度。与机动性概念相比,可达性在城市研究和交通规划中有着更为广泛且重要的应用:首先,能夯实城市交通规划的指导原则;其次,能准确监测与评价交通项目实施效果;最后,能深刻诠释城市空间结构。

关键词:可达性;概念;测算方法;规划应用

中图分类号:U491

文献标识码:A

General Description of Spatial Accessibility

LIU Xianteng
(Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093)

Abstract: It's been observed that different understanding on accessibility occurs. In order to have a full yet clear picture of the concept, this paper starts with a literature review on its fundamental implications and evaluation methods published both at home and abroad. In general, the methods to percept and evaluate accessibility can be categorized into three: spatial separation, opportunity agglomeration, and spatial interaction. The first one analyzes accessibility from a pure shape-and-configuration perspective, while the other two further address the impacts of land-use and opportunity on accessibility. That is, the second method stresses the amount of opportunities concentrated within an isochrone of a particular point; instead, the third method emphasizes spatial interaction intensity between a pair of origin and destination. Compared with mobility, accessibility feature is a wider and more important application in urban study and transportation planning, in that it helps to identify principles for urban transportation planning, to monitor and evaluate the implementation results of traffic improvement projects more accurately, and to explain urban spatial structure more profoundly.

Keywords: accessibility; concept; evaluation method; application in planning

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